Good, Solid Measurement: Outputs, Outtakes and Outcomes

mstory123 | February 15, 2009 in Georgetown,Measurement,Offline public relations | Comments (38)

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OK.  I admit it.

I am so far in the tank for Katie Delahaye Paine’s body of work that if you tried to extract me from the tank, it would ten Navy SEAL divers and week of hard work.

In addition to helping we communications professionals  a) understand where we are, b) where we want to go, c) how to measure if when we get there, and d) how to correct and adjust as we go along, Katie’s teachings have helped me enormously to explain why measurement is important and why so many people are getting it wrong now.

Impressions – BAH!

Katie points out early in her book that good measurements include the following, based upon what you want to see at the end of a campaign:

  1. Outputs – Katie describes this as the relative number of opportunities to see generated media relations versus other marketing/communications tactics.  it’s the relative cost per opportunity to see key messages and at also a public relations value ratio.
  2. Outtakes – This is the recent of awareness of preferences  generated by public relations activities versus other marketing communications tactics (let the internal turf wars begin); and
  3. Outcomes: The percent changes in sales, market share generated by public relations vs. other tactics.

Now, not all of these are easily to explain, but I wont’ give away the whole book.  In addition to writing it for my Georgetown students, this is designed to pimp the book, not replace it.

So for those of you who are new to measurement or fans of impressions, let’s hear your thinking on the three campaign outcome measurements above.

Mark


38 Responses to “Good, Solid Measurement: Outputs, Outtakes and Outcomes”

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  1. Comment by Sunaina BhatnagarFebruary 16, 2009 at 7:37 am  

    Katie Paine’s book, “Measuring Public Relationships” is a useful resource for all public professionals, regardless of where they are in their careers.

    I am new to the public relations field and thus, new to measurement as well. However, I couldn’t keep Paine’s engaging book down. She offers a plentiful amount of advice including information on measuring tools for professionals to utilize, measuring relations with the media and measuring relationships with analysts and influential individuals. So far, from what I have read, Paine also stresses the importance of what she labels the “three categories of the results of public relations efforts: outputs, outtakes, and outcomes.” (Paine, 3). I will go over the two categories that I found most intriguing:

    Outtakes:

    It’s great that Paine goes into detail on how to measure outtakes. I would imagine some public relations professionals may sometimes be consumed with their cause or client that they might overlook the importance of media relations. Paine also offers great tools to measure outtakes with media including administering surveys. It is important to stay on good terms with the media so I appreciate this measuring tool being discussed.

    Outcomes:

    Paine defines this term in her book as: “quantifiable changes in attitudes, behaviors or opinions that occur as end results of a public relations program.” One way to measure this is through the use surveys, which are cost efficient. She even provides a survey in the appendix of her book (Grunig relationship survey).

    Overall, I am enjoying reading Paine’s book. It is insightful and engaging, especially since I am new to the public relations field. I know that I that I will definitely be referencing to Paine’s book to guide me as my career progresses.

    No matter where a public relations professional is in their career, they should check out Paine’s book.

  2. Comment by Kevin Kaveski — February 16, 2009 at 9:48 pm  

    Katie Paine’s book provides framework for professionals (regardless of profession) who are interested in measuring relationships. My favorite section of the book is:

    “The Seven Basic Steps of Any Measurement Program.”

    1: Identify the audience with whom you have relationships
    2: Define objectives for each audience
    3: Define your measurement criteria
    4: Define your benchmark
    5: Select a measurement tool
    6: Analyze data, draw conclusions, make recommendations
    7: Make changes and measure again

    These steps can be used to measure the success of a PR campaign, evaluating internal corporate relationships, or measuring individual performance at work in pursuit of a raise.

    Also, Paine clearly explains the differences between outputs and outtakes.

    Outputs – the relative number of opportunities generated by PR or communications tactics.

    Outtakes – the percent of awareness or preference generated from the opportunities (outputs).

    Understanding the difference allows for a pursuit of in depth measurement, that can be measured, changed, and measured again until the desired results are achieved.

    Personally, I’m using Paine’s measurement steps in my work place to accurately measure the effectiveness of my work and my department.

  3. Comment by Shakirah Hill — February 17, 2009 at 7:54 am  

    I must preface my post by saying that, as someone who is new to measurements, I am finding this book to be a really good read. Katie Paine writes in a way that easy to understand and also to translate to actual execution.

    With that said, here is my interpretation of how Paine defines how public relations professionals should measure:

    1. Outputs- the number of messages that are disseminated through press releases to media outlets that are picked up by those outlets.
    2. Outtakes- the percentage of the message actually being perceived as it was intended versus the percentage of messages that were misinterpreted.
    3. Outcomes-the increase in awareness as a result of the correctly received messages.

    I think that Paine is great at highlighting the benefits of measuring. I found her mantra, “Measurement is good. Measurement will not hurt me. Measurement will get me the big raise I’ve been dreaming about” to be a bit funny, but definitely necessary because not measuring how your organization’s messages are being received can be very costly and hazardous as she pointed out.

  4. Comment by Zhazira Bukina — February 17, 2009 at 12:34 pm  

    The terms “outputs”, “outtakes” and “outcomes” are really something new for me. I find it a little confused. As I understood, the outputs are related to quality of coverage in the media. Outtakes mean messages change audience perception, attitudes, and intentions. Finally, outcomes are impact on the business: sales, market share, prices and so on; change in organizations’ reputation. Also, outcomes are qualitative descriptions of successes in terms lives changed and goals achieved, through messages that show increased knowledge and changed behaviors.

  5. Comment by Jacqueline Sibanda — February 17, 2009 at 5:01 pm  

    I appreciate Paine’s work on measurement but I still struggle to understand how you can distinguish which tool is responsible for the positive results in an integrated campaign. Surely there will be an overlap in what parts or tools of the campaign target audiences are exposed to?

  6. Comment by Mark Story — February 17, 2009 at 5:28 pm  

    Jacqueline,

    If I understand your question, you are asking how you can distinguish which tactics is responsible for the positive results in an integrated campaign?

    All of this is laid out in the beginning chapters of the book.

    Mark

  7. Comment by Catherine Avery — February 17, 2009 at 6:50 pm  

    As a fundraising professional seeking to enter the PR world, I knew that I would appreciate Katie Paine’s book before I even opened it, as I see myself as I currently see my job function as “Data-Driven Communicator.”

    While I am unable to measure some aspects of the outputs, outtakes, and outcomes of my fundraising program, Paine’s analysis of the end of a campaign shows that there are several layers to each of these components. For example, I may not be able to measure the percentage of my constituents that know about my engagement programs, however I am able to measure their engagement through the amount of negative and positive phone calls or emails that I receive on a given day, week, or month.

    In my current job, I enjoy analyzing the metrics of the outcomes as in my work; the numbers of donors who increase or decrease their donations drive my programming and messaging. To me it appears that the outputs, outtakes and outcomes is cyclical, and once you measure the outcomes, you then begin to establish the next set of outputs, and so on. I look forward to learning more about measuring PR, and in particular, having a better understanding of measuring new media and online communications.

  8. Comment by Felicia Akoh — February 18, 2009 at 9:08 am  

    Katie Paine’s “Measuring Public Relationships” is a good material for PR professionals and especially the new comers into the field.

    The three concepts she outlines here,outtake out put and outcome are somehow confusing to me.Neverthles, what i got out from these measuring tools is;

    Outputs are items like press releases,advertisement which influences people’s or the audiences’ action in the product service(outake) and the outcome is how the people react to the outake.

    I would say these concepts stresses on the marketing strategy of Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action (AIDA)

  9. Comment by Shana McMahon — February 18, 2009 at 9:46 am  

    Being new to the PR profession everything we have learned so far has helped me understand PR better and allowed me to apply certain things to the real world. Katie Payne’s book is going to be very helpful for when I start taking on new tasks within the company because she brings into a new light of how PR can be perceived and measured.

    Reading and understanding the measurements of output, outtake and outcome that Payne describes, I am seeing it used through out my office. I am able to see it being worked through my office without my co-workers understand exactly what they are doing to achieve a good campaign.

    Outtakes and Outcomes are the form of measurements that are used more throughout my office so I understand those form of measurements better. Working for a new media firm we see outtakes and outcomes in the blogs that we do, web pages we update asking for donations. Our outcomes allow us to see what words work best when searching for one of our clients or we also track how many people enter out web pages.

    Being new to PR these measurement tactics will really help me understand how to to work better with our clients go achieve the end result of the campaigns we work on.

  10. Comment by Alec Jeffries — February 18, 2009 at 10:25 am  

    I am pleased to discover that Katie’s consulting firm, KDPaine & Partners, LLC, a firm dedicated to providing clients with insight and knowledge to measure the effectiveness of their communications practices, implements many of the same standards outlined in her book.

    The discussion of trust and the power value associated with gaining consumer loyalty really grabbed my attention in chapter six. This particular chapter coincides with the idea that communication is information. Effective public relations practitioners constantly work to stimulate and persuade customers and measure their success through consumer active learning and practice. Winning the trust and loyalty of consumers boils down to Katie’s six relationship components: control mutuality, commitment, satisfaction, exchange relationship, and communal relationship.

    The Public Relations Value Ratio (PRV) is also an interesting concept that creates measurable criteria for an effective course of action. I work in a small office and love the idea of segmenting a target audience to maximize resources.

    In the words of Katie Paine, “Measure on!”

  11. Comment by Alma S. — February 18, 2009 at 11:24 am  

    As I was reading Katie Paine’s book, Measuring Public Relationships, I had to stop several times and twitter (AmericanLatina) about her book. I was so excited to have someone breakdown for me a lesson that I had to learn on my own recently, and to have a resource where I could learn more about measurement and use everyday at work.

    As I read I thought of everyone I would anonymously buy the book for, and have them hit over the head with it upon delivery for making me collect and glue media clips – fortunately, Katie Paine (kdpaine) didn’t mind.

    Since my first internship I had been preached on saving and measuring every media impression to measure success. Although I never thought the numbers meant anything, I just accepted that this was how the job was done. I admit that was a poor excuse for not asking myself “is there a better way?” Then in 2007, I was asked if there was a better way.

    @ericldavis was the first person who asked I provide more than just impressions as a form of measurement. I was working under his guidance to develop and propose an interactive marketing plan for a client’s campaign. This was a first for our client and company making measurement that much more important.

    His first question after reviewing my plan was “how are we going to measure this?” Ignorant to the importance of measure I said we would count views. He returned the plan,and asked me to find a better way. At the moment my ego was crushed, but it was time I grew up professionally.

    I had to(and did)develop a plan that measured a) outputs – number of backlinks, embedded players, YouTube views etc, b) outtakes – what they commented about our campaign, c) outcome – did they visit the campaign’s site. We had a benchmark to measure against, established measurement tools and a set measurement schedule.

    The experience taught me how important measurement is before, during and after a campaign. I saw how measurement was used in the following ways:

    - make the “sale” to our client/boss, this was done before, during and after our campaign.
    - manage our efforts, researching prior results we were able to determine if certain strategies would be worth considering we were also able to allocate more resources to strategies where we saw fit.
    - maximize results as we could make adjustments in campaign if we noticed slags or opporutnities
    - enhance one’s career and team by coordinating the outputs with our outcomes to highlight our impact.

    Today I’m still learning how to measure and communicate my results, but I find myself asking “how can I measure this” as I develop outreach strategies. I have to know the answer before I pitch the idea. This step isn’t to protect my ego, but because I saw how valuable measurement is when done correctly.

  12. Comment by Tzu-Ying(Daisy) Chen — February 18, 2009 at 12:36 pm  

    Paine’s work is clear and accessible for those who are new to public relations, giving us an easy outline and providing basic concepts on how communication professionals evaluate a campaign. As I read her book, I had little difficulty understanding the step-by-step research procedures. I found those procedures applicable to the case analysis.

    The three categories of public relations effort results provide insightful ways to examine a public relations campaign.

    “Outputs” are substantial products designed, generated or formed for a specific public relations campaign. From my understanding, they contain communication messages and information relating to public relations campaign.

    “Outtakes” set out by asking how target audiences become aware of a subject, like messages that comes from the public relation campaign. We also want to know how much the target audiences really perceive.

    “Outcomes,” which focuses on the behavior of the target audience, are the most difficult and important part to measure. Luckily, most communication professionals take advantage of the development of technology so that they can easily access Internet data and online resources to analyze the effectiveness of a campaign.

  13. Comment by Yinka Olajide — February 18, 2009 at 1:38 pm  

    I got the summary of the discussion from the preface of Ms Paine’s book. She told a story of a University in England that lost a $6 million grant for not making use of these three measuring tools: inputs, outakes and outcomes.

    For any business to succeed at all there must be some sort of measuring tools in place to check whether efforts that are applied to the business are working. Why should Public Relations be any different? I do enjoy reading the book basically it is the public relations professional’s answer to why are we here? Why do we do what we do?

  14. Comment by Alicja Patela — February 18, 2009 at 2:38 pm  

    “Outputs”, “outtakes’ and “outcomes” are essential components to measuring ongoing progress and success. I think it’s vital in any profession, especially in Public Relations, to consistently track and measure your work and projects. Katie Paine stresses that a “measurement system” is crucial for an overall successful outcome, and we all want our PR campaigns to be successful. If something works and turns out to be successful, we tend to repeat those steps on the following projects, most likely with some kind of modifications. In order to do that, you do need to have a breakdown of measurement for your analysis.

    As young professionals interested in Public Relations and Communications, it is important to pay close attention to “measuring” the work that we are currently doing, even if you are not working in Public Relations at this time. This can give us a deeper insight as to how we can increase, monitor and maintain productivity and success, by understanding and analyzing Katie Paine’s measurements; “outputs”, “outtakes’ and “outcomes.”
    I also think that there are some forms of communication that can’t be measured very accurately and that don’t fit into tangible categories. How do we go about measuring those forms and how do we take them into account when looking at the overall big picture?

  15. Comment by Erinn Dumas — February 18, 2009 at 2:52 pm  

    Katie Paine’s, “Measuring Public Relationships: The Data-Driven Communicator’s Guide to Success”, is a well-written book about the proper way to measure one’s public relations campaign. In the first chapter Paine writes that relationships with key publics are vital to a company’s survival and then mentions the seven basic step of any measurement program (Paine 1). As Paine proceeds, she breaks measurement into three categories of results: outputs, outtakes and outcomes (Paine 3).

    Outputs are the physical results (like clippings or brochures), outtakes are how people think as a result of experiencing the output (typically measured with a survey), and outcomes are how people behave as a result of the outputs (like buying or recommending a product) (Paine 3). These three categories are important because they effectively measure one’s campaign, especially outtakes and outcomes. While Outputs are important, the most important part is whether or not those clippings contain key messages. Outtakes and outcomes are measures of the campaign because they can measure the company’s relationship with its key publics (Paine 5). For example, “In a good relationship, one person ‘takes away’ from an interaction the feeling or perception that the other wants them to have” (Paine 5).

    In conclusion, public relations is partially about managing good relationships with key publics (Paine 3). Outputs, outtakes and outcomes will help one to effectively manage and guage their public relations efforts, along with other steps mentioned in “Measuring Public Relations: The Data-Driven Communicator’s Guide to Success”.

  16. Comment by Erinn Dumas — February 18, 2009 at 2:52 pm  

    Katie Paine’s, “Measuring Public Relationships: The Data-Driven Communicator’s Guide to Success”, is a well-written book about the proper way to measure one’s public relations campaign. In the first chapter Paine writes that relationships with key publics are vital to a company’s survival and then mentions the seven basic step of any measurement program (Paine 1). As Paine proceeds, she breaks measurement into three categories of results: outputs, outtakes and outcomes (Paine 3).

    Outputs are the physical results (like clippings or brochures), outtakes are how people think as a result of experiencing the output (typically measured with a survey), and outcomes are how people behave as a result of the outputs (like buying or recommending a product) (Paine 3). These three categories are important because they effectively measure one’s campaign, especially outtakes and outcomes. While Outputs are important, the most important part is whether or not those clippings contain key messages. Outtakes and outcomes are measures of the campaign because they can measure the company’s relationship with its key publics (Paine 5). For example, “In a good relationship, one person ‘takes away’ from an interaction the feeling or perception that the other wants them to have” (Paine 5).

    In conclusion, public relations is partially about managing good relationships with key publics (Paine 3). Outputs, outtakes and outcomes will help one to effectively manage and gauge their public relations efforts, along with other steps mentioned in “Measuring Public Relations: The Data-Driven Communicator’s Guide to Success”.

  17. Comment by Patrice Danet — February 18, 2009 at 2:59 pm  

    Paine’s book is a very useful resource tool to evaluate and measure public relationships. The success metrics such as the outputs, outtakes and outcomes were extremely useful to measure the effectiveness of my case study. I was also able to apply this knowledge in my current position to evaluate communication practices and measure the success within the company. After reading a few chapters of this book, I have become more knowledgeable of Public Relations and the importance of evaluating the success of any Public Relations activity.

  18. Comment by Raquel Fuentes — February 19, 2009 at 12:58 pm  

    So far, I’ve read the first seven chapters of this book, and it has revolutionized the way I think about public relations. Katie Payne dissects the public relations process into logical, measurable and quantifiable steps. When you can quantify something, you can track it, you can show progress over time, and you can hold yourself or others accountable. I’m most impressed by this book, and when this class is over, this is one book I will not be putting away.

    In terms of the 3 results categories, outputs are probably relatively easy to achieve over the short term and a company can maintain the greatest degree of control over the process at this stage.

    Outtakes and outcomes are harder to achieve and are goals for the medium to long term. Because outtakes and outcomes involve how people think and behave, the degree of control the company has is greatly diminished. As the sender, a company controls the message, but it can’t control how it’s received and interpreted. That makes positive outcomes and outtakes much harder to achieve.

    The key to achieving and maintaining positive outtakes and outcomes is not just good public relations efforts but a solid company or product that over time delivers a consistent message or product. If there’s no substance behind the public relations efforts, it’s just spin.

  19. Comment by Kevin Kaveski — February 21, 2009 at 6:46 pm  

    Working in government relations I don’t believe Paine’s (Outputs, Outtakes, and Outcomes) measurement is a properly defined measurement that I can use.

    At my work (Outputs and Outtakes) are identical. My firm sets up meetings with Congressional offices on behalf of our clients who come to Capitol Hill and with our help present ideas and problems, in an effort to request project/earmark funding or policy changes.

    When attending a Congressional meeting (the Output) my company guarantees the ability to get our clients message to Congressional staff (Outtake).

    Outcomes would be determined by change in policy or funding for projects or earmarks.

    I believe that in the world of government relations using the term “impressions” instead of using (Outputs and Outtakes) might be more appropriate term.

    Also, adding an (Input) section for influence would be appropriate. In lobbying fund raising and Congressional luncheons are developed by firms to help clients influence Congressional offices into giving “second looks” or consideration for client interests.

    I propose that in government relations Paine’s measurement needs to be altered.

    1)Impressions – Includes meeting opportunities and messaging received

    2)Inputs – What inspires members to actually act on the received message

    3)Outcomes – Action of changing policy or funding for projects/earmarks

    What does everyone else think?

  20. Comment by Zhazira Bukina — February 23, 2009 at 12:07 pm  

    I agree with Kevin’s thoughts that using the term “impressions” instead of using (Outputs and Outtakes) might be more appropriate term not only in government relations but in media relations as well. Different PR or corporate communications professionals have own approaches of measuring the success of a particular public relations campaign. For example, three levels of measuring public relations effectiveness have been identified by Dr. K. Lindermann, Senior Vice President and Director of Research at Ketchum Public Relations. He labels the basic level “outputs”, the intermediate level “outgrowths” and the advanced level “outcomes”.
    It is more convenient to measure our own PR efforts through answering the question: Have we targeted the right media to reach our target audience? So, first step: Identify the media. Then, we need to focus on next parameters.
    Impression: 1. The number of times an article has appeared in a particular publication should be calculated. These articles should be checked for all the right messages. Then, these articles should be multiplied with circulations figures. Doing it, we need to consider the overall positioning of the story or the key message, which takes following factors into account: Placement, Headlines mentions, Extent of Mention, Visual Presence, Tonality. If there is no key message in coverage there is no impact.
    2. Whether the target audience groups received the messages directed to them. Have they retained and understood the message that was intended too.

    Outcomes: Qualitative descriptions of successes through actions that show increased knowledge and changed behaviors among target audiences.

  21. Comment by Alec Jeffries — February 23, 2009 at 2:55 pm  

    As a business professional, I harness measurement results and statistics and transform these results into powerful tools for persuasion. These tools are particularly useful when attempting to convince a senior manager to act. However, measurement is more complex than gauging physical results, survey results or consumer behavior results. External factors influence public relations and make measurement a challenging task.

    Perhaps the most difficult aspect of applying measurement techniques is the ability to focus on the behavior of a target audience and adjust the results based on external situations. The challenging economic situation certainly places a unique spin on the majority of survey and audience reactions. Behavior becomes erratic and unpredictable as people become increasingly nervous and worried about their future well-being.

    Paine elevates the necessity for measurement by highlighting outputs, outtakes and outcomes. These forms of evaluation are a concise way of describing the public relations framework with measurement standards. I am constantly using a program called Survey Monkey [www.surveymonkey.com]. This quick and easy online survey tool allows me to gauge consumers and shape policy recommendations based on “listening to the consumer.”

  22. Comment by Keith Parent — February 23, 2009 at 3:21 pm  

    Lil recently pointed out that applying the lessons and theories learned in the classroom to our current professional environments creates opportunities to learn as well as positively influence the effectiveness of public relations.

    I work in sales, so my job tends to focus on “outcomes.” As a result of keeping tabs on revenues and brining in as much profit as possible, I tend to forget what drives these outcomes. Outputs and outtakes play slightly different roles for my company. I work for a publisher, so in the case of a company that creates its own media, I would think that outputs could include every book, journal or database we sell because those sources provide exposure and an increase in opportunities.

    We also have editors who write for other media sources and provide my company with industry credibility. That earned media exponentially increases our outputs and outtakes but contributes differently that self generated outputs. Although we know it is happening, we don’t track the outputs or outtakes as mechanisms for revenue growth. It would be interesting to apply Katie’s tactics to a media company that creates its own outputs and outtakes via the service or product it provides. How exactly do outputs differ for a publisher or a media company verses a company that simply uses media to increase outputs and outtakes?

  23. Comment by Alma S. — February 23, 2009 at 3:45 pm  

    As I was reading Katie Paine’s book, Measuring Public Relationships, I had to stop several times and twitter (@AmericanLatina) about her book. I was so excited to have someone breakdown for me a lesson that I had to learn on my own recently, and to have a resource where I could learn more about measurement and use everyday at work.

    As I read I thought of everyone I would anonymously buy the book for, and have them hit over the head with it upon delivery for making me collect and glue media clips – fortunately, Katie Paine (@kdpaine) didn’t mind.

    Since my first internship I had been preached on saving and measuring every media impression to measure success. Although I never thought the numbers meant anything, I just accepted that this was how the job was done. I admit that was a poor excuse for not asking myself “is there a better way?” Then in 2007, I was asked if there was a better way.

    @ericldavis was the first person who asked I provide more than just impressions as a form of measurement. I was working under his guidance to develop and propose an interactive marketing plan for a client’s campaign. This was a first for our client and company making measurement that much more important.

    His first question after reviewing my plan was “how are we going to measure this?” Ignorant to the importance of measure I said we would count views. He returned the plan, and asked me to find a better way. At the moment my ego was crushed, but it was time I grew up professionally.

    I had to(and did)develop a plan that measured a) outputs – number of back-links, embedded players, YouTube views etc, b) outtakes – what they commented about our campaign, c) outcome – did they visit the campaign’s site. We had a benchmark to measure against, established measurement tools and a set measurement schedule.

    The experience taught me how important measurement is before, during and after a campaign. I saw how measurement was used in the following ways:

    - make the “sale” to our client/boss; this was done before, during and after our campaign.
    - manage our efforts, researching prior results we were able to determine if certain strategies would be worth considering we were also able to allocate more resources to strategies where we saw fit.
    - maximize results as we could make adjustments in campaign if we noticed ‘slags’ or opportunities
    - enhance one’s career and team by coordinating the outputs with our outcomes to highlight our impact. With strong results, and highlighting that there is an opportunity for revenue in a poor economy, our company now has an interactive communicatinos department – (@ericldavis) is the department’s director.

    Today I’m still learning how to measure and communicate my results, but I find myself asking “how can I measure this” as I develop outreach strategies. I have to know the answer before I pitch the idea. This step isn’t to protect my ego, but because I saw how valuable measurement is when done correctly.

  24. Comment by Felicia Akoh — February 24, 2009 at 6:57 am  

    An organization or company’s success is based on its knowledge on where they are, where they want to be and how they can get there. Reading through Paine’s book and from this past weeks I have understood that measurement is the key to this success. A company would strive in its competitive market if these measurement strategies Paine outlines are put in place.

    I agree with Paine because a company which sends out press releases, media clips or advertisement for example would flourish, due to the exposure it gives to the company. This exposure is what inspires the publics or it raises their interest in what the company offers. Therefore the press releases for example needs to be catchy and attractive. A company with a bad PR output or no output at all would definitely crumble. Measuring outcome is what I consider the most interesting part. There is no need to go without this part of the measuring process. Knowing where you are and if your PR program was a success is the best thing. According to me outcomes should be the greatest point of interest.

  25. Comment by Shakirah Hill — February 24, 2009 at 8:14 am  

    After reading Paine’s explanation of outputs, outtakes, and outcomes again, I began to think about how she takes into account the other factors that may influence the outcome of an organizations increased awareness. While I think that the model is useful I feel that it is still broad. The correlation between the output of messages, how the messages are interpreted, and the result of those interpretations makes sense, but there is a component missing. I am wondering if there is anyway to add to the model an account for outside influences. By outside influences I mean changes in the environment surrounding the organization (i.e. political change, new technology, word of mouth). Perhaps this could be that measurement is still a new process used in communications. I am curious to see if there will be an added component to this model that will measure these other influences.

  26. Comment by Kevin Kaveski — February 24, 2009 at 9:48 am  

    After re-posting this week and reading Shakirah’s post I was curious to know if Katie Paine has updated any of her measurements to include outside influences?

    In my situation (government relations)- Fund raising and passing of new laws

    Shakirah’s environmental situation – Political change, New technology, word of mouth

    Has anyone come across any new measurements or evolved information from Katie Paine?

  27. Comment by Shana McMahon — February 24, 2009 at 10:57 am  

    Being new to PR and the company I work in, Katie Paine’s book has allowed me to get a better understanding of the company I work for. These measurements Paine talks about are being applied within my company very clearly. The two measurements that stand out are output and outtakes. For output we make apparent what we can do for our client in the new media sector because that is what our focus is. Once we show them past clients and current clients we are continuously working on and their success we can move on to help this new campaign with our for of outtakes. It is out job to see how we can get their message, movie, campaign, etc. out as best as possible so the most amounts of people will read about it and want to take action. The outtakes is the biggest factor of our company’s working because this is where we create awareness with the use of emails, blogs, websites, and any other online function that would apply for the client.

    The only measurement I have a problem with when considering it in my work place is outcome. It is hard to measure the exact outcome for some campaigns because of what they are trying to get across to the people. It has a lot to do with what type of campaign you are working on and what type of PR, public affairs, etc. company you are. So, I do agree with Kevin and Shakirah that there should be outside factors taken into consideration especially when measuring the outcome of a campaign because there are many thins that can affect an outcome. If outside factors were equated into measuring the outcome of the campaign it would give a more precise measurement and save people time and money, which is in dire need in today’s economy.

  28. Comment by Tzu-Ying(Daisy) Chen — February 24, 2009 at 2:13 pm  

    While I was working at a public relations agency, utilizing appropriate metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign was by far the most difficult aspect our team had to deal with. If only I had read Katie Paine’s book, “Measuring Public Relations,” I would not have felt so helpless when I needed to show accountable information to back up our public relations strategy.

    Our client always demanded compelling data and statistics to make sure how much public relations professionals contributed to the consumer perceptions or sales growth. What our team did for the client was no more than collect daily newspaper clippings, count the number of brand names and measure the space containing the key messages. The value in public relations used to be simply in part based on the advertising value equivalent.

    My past experience in measuring the effectiveness of our public relations campaigns looks more errant, compared to the three categories of public relationships measurements that I read in Katie Paine’s book. As an increasing demand for accurate results and accountability are springing up, to use the appropriate techniques of measurement becomes indispensable to obtain what my client and I want at the end of the campaign. Furthermore, outputs, outtakes and outcomes help a lot in adjusting the public relations strategies for other campaigns in the future.

    From the outputs, I will know how well the campaign is doing and manipulate and monitor the media to frequently expose the audience to key messages. The outtakes are in great part resulting from the outputs, and are accountable for the effectiveness of outputs: how many audiences really perceive the key messages. From the client’s point of view, outcomes are the ultimate goal of the public relations campaign. Revealing the actual feedback and response from consumers, outcomes prove how key messages work on consumer behavior. The three categories of public relationships measurement make a campaign more clear and explainable for the client.

  29. Comment by Catherine Avery — February 24, 2009 at 2:50 pm  

    Since our last class, I have been thinking a lot about Paine’s analysis of measuring relationships, and in particular, I have been questioning as to whether or not I could apply Paine’s recommendations for measurement to my programming at work. Thinking back to my previous post, in my job function as a fundraiser, the outputs would be how and where my key messages are distributed to my constituents. The outtakes represent the constituents who understand and believe the messages. As a result, the outcomes reflect the new donors and those who renew their gifts from the previous year.

    The pieces that I am trying to understand are the donors who chooses not to give at all or those who decrease their gifts, and how do these pieces fit with Paine’s measurements? I realize that there are many different influencers that determine why someone chooses to make a gift or not, however, as a communicator how can I determine what part of my messaging in the outputs is not resonating with these constituents? From Paine’s analysis, it seems that the best way to measure this gap is through a survey.

    In any other fiscal year, I would probably do just that and conduct a survey, however, given the economic climate, I am weary to survey several thousand people on a matter that hits at their wallet. For now, I am sticking with old-fashioned phone-calls and listening to what my donors have to say.

  30. Comment by Erinn Dumas — February 24, 2009 at 2:58 pm  

    Katie Paine’s “Measuring Public Relationships: The Data-Driven Communicator’s Guide to Success,” is a well-written book about the proper way to measure a public relations campaign. I think that all companies should utilize the tools she mentions throughout the chapters to suite their specific needs. In my opinion, a company should not run a campaign they can not evaluate at a later time. Outputs, outtakes, and outcomes help companies effectively evaluate their campaigns.

    For example, I currently work for Fishbowl Marketing, a marketing firm and during their rapid growth last year, the company introduced a mobile marketing program to our clients. Almost a year later and the CEO canceled the mobile marketing program. I believe the program was canceled because the company was losing money. In Paine’s book, she lists 10 questions that every communications professional must be able to answer. Had Fishbowl answered the following question, they would have known that mobile marketing was not a good program to launch.
    1. What’s important to our audience? – I would reword it as, what is important to the end customer?

    Answering “What’s important to the audience?” would have saved my company from launching the mobile marketing program and then cancelling it a year later because they would have determined that the program does not offer great value to the end user. While the company researched mobile marketing before launching it, they did not test and evaluate the program properly.

    Had Fishbowl answered the important question mentioned above and tested a pilot program, they would have not have started a mobile marketing program. Measurement is important when evaluating campaigns and programs; evaluation can save companies thousands of dollars. While the above example is more about prior research (answering 10 questions) than outputs, outtakes and outcomes, it is still relevant to these three categories. Paine mentions in her book that a company should answer 10 important questions before starting a campaign. Once these questions are answered, and the campaign has been started, the campaign can be measured by its outputs, outtakes, and outcomes.

    On the other hand, maybe Fishbowl did measure the outputs, outtakes, and outcomes of the mobile marketing and deemed the program ineffective.

  31. Comment by Alicja Patela — February 24, 2009 at 2:59 pm  

    First, I would like to say that I really enjoy how Katie Paine uses examples, charts, and her own work experiences when explaining certain aspects of measurements. It really makes it much easier for the reader to understand Paine’s analysis.
    We talked about “impressions” and “opportunities” in class and it’s important to always keep in mind that not all “impressions” are good or can be beneficial. Mark spoke about CPM and the CPMC formula in class and the numerical break down that he showed us made it clearer and showed us how it was applied in a situation. Paine refers to this in Chapter 5 and shows an example where the cost of advertising was 10 times more than a press release. It’s really important to look at these formulas and take different costs into account so that you can have effective outcomes. I understood what Mark showed us in class but maybe a few more examples of CPM and CPMC might be helpful.

  32. Comment by Yinka Olajide — February 24, 2009 at 3:48 pm  

    The measure of Inputs, Outputs and Outtakes is directly related to your ability to retain your job. If as a communications professional you are able to prove your usefulness to the company, then it becomes a little harder for the axe to fall on you when there is a need for such to occur. I am definitely looking at this from a selfish point of view. Also measuring your efforts makes your job easier since you can weed out what works and what does not. You can then avoid duplicating efforts that gets you nowhere. There is also a sense of achievement that comes from looking back and seeing what you were able to achieve. This again is me talking from a selfish point of view.

  33. Comment by Raquel Fuentes — February 24, 2009 at 4:34 pm  

    I went back and re-read my posting from last week, I still stand by everything I said.

    I tried to think how it applies to my job (even though I’m not in PR, yet) and my company today. Outputs are fairly easy to measure and a company has a great deal of control over when, what and how to communicate the message. We already keep track of the marketing collateral we produce, press releases we put out and number of corporate events we attend along with dollar amount associated with each one. While we can fine tune the measurement and always improve on the communication, I feel we’re doing a good job on that front.

    On the outtake front, we recently engaged a company to conduct a survey on behalf of our company of customers and influencers. In the coming months, I will be re-reading some of the chapters to make sure that we incorporate elements of the Grunig relationship survey and to make sure that we draw actionable conclusions.

    On the outcomes front, this the hardest category to measure for my company because we are not disciplined or structured on many fronts. There are several marketing examples that Payne gives in terms of measuring marketing ROI for events and sponsorships that I can definitely start to implement right away.

  34. Comment by sakshi jain — February 24, 2009 at 11:21 pm  

    The art of persuasion is necessary arsenal in any occupation, and no less so than in the field of public relations. Katie Paine’s exploration of measurement can be summarized with one succinct question that most communications professionals endeavor to answer: How well have I persuaded my audience? The “how well” is a metric that requires an unbiased, objective evaluation of one’s efforts using tools that measure results over time, such as percentage increase in sales over the course of the year, or percentage increase in web traffic (month to month), depending on the program or product evaluated.
    To answer the proverbial question effectively, Katie categorizes PR efforts into the following three metrics that measure relationships:
    Outputs: the tangible results of a concerted effort to influence opinion (# of clippings, etc, conveying key messages)
    Outtakes: the change in attitude or perception of your target audience as a result of the Outputs
    Outcome: the resulting change in behavior attributable to the outputs and outtakes of a public relations program
    Thus, to motivate behavioral change in your audience, you must first change perception, and to influence perception, key messages must be conveyed to the audience in question through tactical vehicles (white papers, blogs, press releases, news articles, speaking engagements, etc). Implementing measurement tools at each stage (output, outtake and outcome) is strategic and allows a PR practitioner to quickly identify strengths and weaknesses of any program, directing efforts and funding into those outputs that lead to the desired outcome and minimizing or eliminating use of outputs that, quite frankly, don’t measure up.
    These principles can be applied to any profession: in my own line of business development operations, the Outputs are the bid responses developed by our company that are designed to sway a customer to choose us over a competitor. The Outtakes and Outcome in our case or two sides of the same coin: a contract awarded to us means we have changed both, the client’s perception of us and their behavior.
    But all too often, businesses allow measurements to fall to the wayside as programs are executed over the long term without regular checks and balances to ensure the same idea that was great 8 months ago is still viable today. Katie’s book tells us that measuring the 3 O’s isn’t to be done once, but continuously to reap the maximum benefit at minimum cost.

  35. Comment by Jacqueline — February 25, 2009 at 9:47 am  

    My original question regarding KD Paine’s work in measurement was around distinguishing what the target audience is exposed to in the communications/marketing mix in order to ‘see’ the impact of public relations.

    I was fortunate enough today to attend the PRSA-NCC event on using measurement to promote your function and I think I got my answer when Katie responded to an audience question on bridging the gap between outtakes and outcomes.

    THE ANSWER: Paine says you can only measure the impact of NOT doing public relations.

    I understand that to mean if you have an advertising campaign for your product, you first implement without public relations support and measure the results of that. When you go on to introduce a public relations component you then have existing data against which you can benchmark the correlation between the lack of public relations as part of your mix and impact on sales.

    Our own Barbar Coons, also on the panel, emphasised the importance of clearly defining your role in the mix so that you can clearly articulate what you bring to the process and also be able to measure the part which you responsible for.

    Katie highlighted that many of us allow ourselves to be bogged down with the unrealistic expectations of others, i.e. a boss that thinks you can drive up sales soley through your campaign. She argues that actually you are not responsible for sales, that’s marketing’s job. For example, if you are responsible for raising spokesperson visibility then that is all you should be measuring. The fact that the spokesperson’s high profile has a positive effect on sales does not make sales your function to measure.

  36. Comment by Sunaina BhatnagarFebruary 25, 2009 at 12:46 pm  

    Many of my classmates above have used Katie Paine’s measuring tools to compare the outputs, outtakes, and/or outcomes in their own current jobs. I work at a dental office so I won’t go into the details of the outcome of gluing brackets on teeth and inserting steel wires in patient’s mouths. I will, however, discuss my reaction to Paine’s engrossing and informative book and the versatility of her measuring tools.

    Since I started this public relations program, the classes I have taken have focused on strategizing campaigns marketing tactics, ethics in public relations, and various types of public relations writing. Thus, I was pleasantly new to the entire concept of measurements and their application in the public relations field.

    It is strange that measurements, something so imperative to the success of public relations, are often overlooked by working professionals in the field. After reading Paine’s insight and wisdom on measurements, including her take on ouputs, outtakes and outcomes, I thought that these measurements almost should seem intuitive to public relations professionals.

    Clearly, common sense is not so common.

    Why aren’t measurements constantly on our minds? Maybe because we are looking for the next, big campaign that will blow everyone away? I am not sure.

    All I know is that Paine’s book was immensely educational for me. I would also like to mention that she writes with such impeccable clarity. I would imagine that is not easy to write about equations and measuring tools, but Paine makes this look effortlessly easy with her clear and easy to understand writing style.

    As I said in my earlier post, I hope to be able to utilize this book fully when I am in a real public relations job. Until that day, I will read and ingrain Paine’s measurement philosophies in my brain until they are set in stone!

  37. Comment by Sunaina BhatnagarFebruary 25, 2009 at 12:48 pm  

    Many of my classmates above have used Katie Paine’s measuring tools to compare the outputs, outtakes, and/or outcomes in their own current jobs. I work at a dental office so I won’t go into the details of the outcome of gluing brackets on teeth or inserting steel wires in patients’ mouths. I will, however, discuss my reaction to Paine’s engrossing and informative book and the versatility of her measuring tools.

    Since I started this public relations program, the classes I have taken have focused on strategizing campaigns marketing tactics, ethics in public relations, and various types of public relations writing. Thus, I was pleasantly new to the entire concept of measurements and their application in the public relations field.

    It is strange that measurements, something so imperative to the success of public relations, are often overlooked by working professionals in the field. After reading Paine’s insight and wisdom on measurements, including her take on ouputs, outtakes and outcomes, I thought that these measurements almost should seem intuitive to public relations professionals.

    Clearly, common sense is not so common.

    Why aren’t measurements constantly on our minds? Maybe because we are looking for the next, big campaign that will blow everyone away? I am not sure.

    All I know is that Paine’s book was immensely educational for me. I would also like to mention that she writes with such impeccable clarity. I would imagine that is not easy to write about equations and measuring tools, but Paine makes this look effortlessly easy with her clear and easy to understand writing style.

    As I said in my earlier post, I hope to be able to utilize this book fully when I am in a real public relations job. Until that day, I will read and ingrain Paine’s measurement philosophies in my brain until they are set in stone!

  38. Comment by Patrice Danet — February 25, 2009 at 2:29 pm  

    Paine’s book is a very useful resource tool to evaluate and measure public relationships. The success metrics such as the outputs, outtakes and outcomes were extremely useful to measure the effectiveness of my case study. I was also able to apply this knowledge in my current position to evaluate communication practices and measure the success within the company. Maximizing relationships is an important core role at my current job. The manual highlights the importance of maintaining mutually beneficial relationships with our publics. Everyday I please our guest and team members by delivering a Target Brand experience, as well as to negotiate solutions that benefit the guests when a situation occurs. An important aspect in any relationship is trust. Building trust with our publics (team members and guests) increases our sales as well as drives our store’s mission. Guest feedback is important to help measure our success. This chapter enabled me to think about our guests differently, as a way to increase surveys and results. Although survey scores are a very important measurement, I do not believe the results are an accurate evaluation. Majority of our guest polls result from those who encountered a negative experience. This can help us improve, but overall displays a negative reflection of our store’s customer experience. After reading a few chapters of this book, I have become more knowledgeable of Public Relations and the importance of evaluating the success of any Public Relations activity.